J Psychoactive Drugs. 2005 Dec;37(4):363-71.
An integral approach to substance abuse.
Amodia DS, Cano C, Eliason MJ.
State of California Office of Alcohol and Drug Programs, USA.
There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.
PMID: 16480163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]