Effects of homeopathic arsenic on tobacco plant resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Theoretical suggestions about system variability, based on a large experimental data set.
Context: This research aimed at verifying the efficacy of homeopathic treatments by plant-based bioassays, which may be suitable for basic research, because they lack placebo effects and provide large datasets for statistical analyses.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of homeopathic treatments of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on tobacco plants subjected to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation as biotic stress.
Design: Blind, randomized experiment using tobacco leaf disks.
Materials and Methods: Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cultivar Samsun) carrying the TMV resistance gene N. TMV inoculated leaf disks were floated for 3 days in the following: Distilled water (control). H2O 5 and 45 decimal and centesimal potencies. As2O3 5 and 45 decimal and centesimal potencies. The main outcome measures is the number of hypersensitive lesions observed in a leaf disk.
Results: Homeopathic treatments of arsenic induce two effects on the plant: (i) increased resistance to TMV; (ii) decrease variability between experiments (system variability).
Conclusions: In this experimental model two actions of homeopathic treatment were detected: decrease in system variability and enhancement of the natural tendency of the system towards an 'equilibrium point'.
Homeopathy: The Journal Of The Faculty Of Homeopathy [Homeopathy] 2003 Oct; Vol. 92 (4), pp. 195-202.
Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Publisher: Elsevier Science Country of Publication: Germany NLM ID: 101140517 Publication Model: Print Cited Medium: Print ISSN: 1475-4916 (Print) Linking ISSN: 14754916 NLM ISO Abbreviation: Homeopathy Subsets: MEDLINE
Original Publication: Edinburgh : Elsevier Science, c2002-
Tobacco Mosaic Virus/*immunology
Biological Assay ; Homeopathy/methods ; Plant Leaves/virology ; Research Design ; Time Factors ; Tobacco Mosaic Virus/metabolism
0 (Antiviral Agents)
S7V92P67HO (arsenic trioxide)
Date Created: 20031101 Date Completed: 20040305 Latest Revision: 20180305
MEDLINE with Full Text